Tuesday, May 13, 2014

Understanding Exchange lists, and how to use them to lose weight

Successful, healthy, long-term weight loss and healthy eating plan must provide all essential nutrients and adequate intake, and promote health well-being, that’s why Exchange lists system is one of the most excellent approaches for planning healthy diets and weight loss programs, providing control over caloric intake and good balance of all nutrient needs.

This is your guide to know what exchange lists are. And how can you use them to lose weight.

 

What are exchange list?

Exchange lists represent foods sorted by their energy content (i.e.: quantitative approach) established by the ADA (American Dietetic Association) ; that facilitates control on caloric intake of food.

 

Each list has foods with specific portions sizes*, which are approximately equal in their carbohydrates, protein, fat and caloric content. Nevertheless, paying attention to portions might be a good idea; usually portion size dose not equal the serving size that you can see on fact table of food products. 

 

Foods grouped in the same list can be exchanged with each other, but not with foods from other lists. For example you can substitute a slice of bread with 1/3 cup of cooked rice since they are on the same starch list, but you should not substitute a slice of bread with a cup of milk, because they are on different lists as you will see explained below. 

 

 

How can you use them to lose weight?

First: you need to know your daily caloric needs, depending on your goal of weight loss, if you haven’t already calculated it, go to how to use Fitnessyard calculators or to build your sustainable and durable weight loss plan for guidance.

Second: set the number of exchanges you consume every day from each list, and their portions size, in a way that the sum of their calories equals your daily caloric goal.

You can use the next table as guidance, it contains number of plans with specific calories and corresponding number of exchanges of each list, they fall into the range of recommended RDA* percentages of carbohydrates (45-65%), protein (10-30%) and fat (20-35%) suggested by USDA.

*Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the average daily dietary intake of a nutrient that is sufficient to meet the requirement of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals.


 

Number of exchanges from each list depending on daily caloric intake

Food list

1200 Cal

1400 Cal

1600 Cal

1800 Cal

2000 Cal

2200 Cal

2400 Cal

Starch exchanges

5

6

6

7

8

9

9

Fruit exchanges

3

4

4

5

5 ½

6

7

Non-starchy vegetables exchanges

3

3

4

5

5

5

6

Milk exchanges (low and reduced fat)

2 ½

2 ½

3

3

3

3

3

Meat exchanges

5

5

6

6

5 ½

7

7

Fat exchanges

3

4

5

6

6

6

7 ½

 

Put plan into action:

Now distribute your exchanges throughout the day in a way that fits your life schedule.

For every exchange you eat, substrate it from your number of exchanges., for example: if you are has 3 milk exchanges for the day, and had a cup of milk on breakfast, that leaves you with two exchanges for the rest of the day, and so on.

The following lists can help you get started, introducing each exchange list and a number of the most common foods along with their portion sizes.

*Full exchange lists are available on: http://dtc.ucsf.edu/pdfs/FoodLists.pdf

Use Nutrition Plan Builder to build your own food menus, adhering to your number of exchanges.

 

How to estimate exchange sizes?

Having a kitchen balance, a graduated cup and measuring spoons could be helpful in accurate measuring of foods, but occasionally it is impractical to use, so here are some easy ways to estimate portion sizes of foods.

A slice of bread or pancake equals about size of a CD 

One cup of cereals or vegetables is about the size of a fist
One cup (3 exchanges) of rice, pasta looks like this
 

 A tablespoon is about the size of a thumb
A teaspoon is about the size of the top of your thumb
 

 3 exchanges of meat, fish or poultry looks like the image,

so one exchange equals 1/3 this size

30 g of cheese equals to
 
    

1)   Starch list

Every 1 starch choice has

15 g of carbohydrates, 0-3 g of protein, 0-1 g fat , 80 Calories

Common starch foods

Food

Portion size

breads

Bread; white or whole

I slice (1 oz. ≈ 30g)

Pita bread (about 15 cm across)

1/2

Bagel, large (about 12 cm across, 115 g)

¼ (1 oz. ≈ 30g)

Pancake (about 10 cm cross)

1

Roll, plain, small

1 (1 oz. ≈30g)

Cereals and grains

Rice, barley, millet, pasta, cooked

1/3 cup

Oat, dry

¼ cup

Tabbouleh, prepared

½ cup

Cereals (corn flakes) :

-Unsweetened, ready to eat

- sugar-coated, bran, cooked (oats, oatmeal)

-puffed

 

- ¾ cup

-½ cup

-1 ½ cup

Starchy vegetables

Corn

Corn on cob, large

-½ cup

-½ cup (5 oz.≈140 g)

Potato:

-Baked with skin

-Boiled all kinds

-French fried (oven-backed)

 

-¼ large (3 oz.≈90 g)

-½ cup (3 oz.≈90 g)

-1 cup (2 oz.≈60 g)

Yam, sweet potato, plain

½ cup

Peas, green

½ cup

Crackers and snacks

Pretzels

¾ oz. ≈25 g

Popcorn:

-no fat added, or lower fat

-with butter (count as 1starch +1fat)

 

-3 cups

-3 cups

Oyster crackers

20

Graham crackers (4cm*4 cm)

3

Snack chips:

-fat-free or backed (tortilla, potato), backed pita chips

-regular (tortilla, potato) (count as 1starch +1fat)

 

¾ oz. ≈25 g

Beans, peas, lentils

Backed beans

1/3 cup

beans, lentils, peas cooked (all kinds)

½ cup

 

2)   Fruit list

Every 1 fruit choice has

15 g of carbohydrates, 0 g of protein, 0 g fat , 60 Calories

Common fruit items

Food

Portion size

Apple, banana, mango, nectarine, pears, kiwi

Small size (130g ≈about 4-5 ounces)

Apricots

4 whole (150g ≈5 ½ oz.)

Cherries

12 (90 g ≈3 oz.)

Dates

3 medium

Figs

2 medium, or 1 ½ large

Fruit cocktail

½ cup

Grapes, small

17 (90 g ≈3 oz.)

Grapefruit, large

½ (11 oz.≈310 g)

Plums

2 small

Peaches:

-fresh

-canned

 

1 medium (6 oz. ≈170g)

½ cup

Pineapple:

-canned

-fresh

 

Strawberries

1 ¼ cup whole berries

Dried fruit

 

Blue berries, raisins, mixed fruit, cranberries

2 table spoons

Apricots

8 halves

Figs

1 ½

Fruit juice

 

Unsweetened apple, pineapple, grapefruit, orange juice

½ cup

grape juice, prune juice, fruit juice blends (100% juice)

1/3 cup


3)   Vegetables (non-starchy)  

Every 1 cup of raw vegetable

Or ½  cup of cooked vegetables or

Or ½ 100% vegetable juice choice has

5 g of carbohydrates, 2 g of protein, 0 g fat, 25 Calories

Common non-starchy vegetable items

Artichoke

Asparagus

Baby corn

Green beans

Beets

Broccoli

Cabbage

Carrots

Cauliflower

Cucumber

Eggplant

Green onions

Turnip

Mixed vegetables (without corn, peas, or pasta)

Onions

Spinach

Tomatoes (canned, sauce or juice)

 

4)   Milk list

Every Fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk choice (good choice) has

12 g of carbohydrates, 8 g of protein, 0-3 g fat, 100 Calories

Every reduced-fat(2%) milk choice (good choice) has

12 g of carbohydrates, 8 g of protein, 5 g fat, 120 Calories

Every whole milk choice has

12 g of carbohydrates, 8 g of protein, 8 g fat, 160 Calories

Common milk items

Food

Portion size

Illustration

Milk, butter milk

1 cup

Yogurt plain

2/3 cup

-1 cup if whole

 

5)   Meat and meat substitutes list

Meat foods are categorized according to their fat and caloric content into:

1 choice of lean meat has (good choice)

0 g carbohydrates , 7 g protein , 0-3 g fat, 45 calories

Common foods

Food

Potion size

Cheeses (0-3 g fat per 30 g)

30 g ≈ about 1 oz.

Beef, ground, steak, roast, tenderloin, (very lean cuts)

30 g ≈ about 1 oz.

Fish (any kind)

30 g ≈ about 1 oz.

Salmon, canned

30 g ≈ about 1 oz.

Tuna, canned in water or oil, drained

30 g ≈ about 1 oz.

Veal, lean chop, roast

30 g ≈ about 1 oz.

Lamb: ground, rib roast

30 g ≈ about 1 oz.

Organ meats: heart, kidney, liver(high cholesterol)

30 g ≈ about 1 oz.

Poultry, skinless

30 g ≈ about 1 oz.

Processed sandwich meats, with 0-3 g fat per 30 g, 

30 g ≈ about 1 oz.

Sausage, 0-3 g of fat per 30 g

30 g ≈ about 1 oz.

Hot dog, with 0-3 g fat per 30 g

1

Egg whites

2


1 choice of medium-fat meat has

0 g carbohydrates , 7 g protein , 4-7 g fat, 75 calories

Common foods

Food

Portion size

-Cheeses 4-7 g fat per 30 g)

-Mozzarella

-Feta cheese

30 g

-Beef: ground, meatloaf, short ribs, (medium fat cuts)

-Fish, fried

-Poultry, with skin, fried

-Sausage, 4-7 grams of fat per 30 g

30 g

Egg (whole egg)

1

1 choice of high-fat meat has

0 g carbohydrates , 7 g protein , 8 or more g fat, 100 calories

Common foods

Food

Portion size

Cheeses (regular), cheddar, Swiss

30 g

Hot dog

1

-Sausage or hot dog  with 8 or more g of fat per 30 g

-Processed meats with 8 or more g fat per 30 g: bologna, pastrami, hard salami

30 g

1 choice of plant-based protein has

variable g of carbohydrates, 7 g protein, Variable g of fat, Variable calories

Common foods

Food

Portion size

Count as

Baked beans

1/3 cup

1 starch + 1 lean meat

Falafel (spiced chickpea and

wheat patties)

3 patties ( about 6 cm across)

1 carbohydrate + 1 high-fat meat

Hummus

1/3 cup

1 carbohydrate +1 high-fat meat

Peanut butter

1 Table spoon

1 high-fat meat

Refried beans, canned

1/2 cup

1 starch +1 lean meat

 

6)   Fats list

Fat items can be categorized according to their content of mono, polyunsaturated, and saturated fats:

1 choice of fat list has

0 g carbohydrates, 0 g protein, 5 g fat, 45 calorie

Common foods

Food

Portion size

Monounsaturated fats

Avocado

2 table spoons (30 g)

Nuts:

Almonds

Cashews

Hazelnuts

Mixed (50% peanuts)

Peanuts

Pistachios

 

6 nuts

6 nuts

5 nuts

6 nuts

10 nuts

16 nuts

Oils: olive oil

1 teaspoon

Olives:

Black

Green

 

8 large

10 large

Polyunsaturated

Margarine, reduced fat

1 Table spoon

Margarine

1 teaspoon

Mayonnaise, regular

1 teaspoon

Mayonnaise-style salad dressing, regular

2 teaspoons

Nuts:

Pine nuts

Walnuts

 

1 Table spoon

4 halves

Oils: corn, sunflower, soybean

1 teaspoon

Salad dressing:

Regular

Reduced-fat 

 

1 table spoon

2 table spoons

Seeds: sunflower, sesame, pumpkin

1 teaspoon

Tahini

2 teaspoons

Unsaturated  (limit use)

butter

1 teaspoon

Cream:

Heavy

Light

Half and half

Whipped

 

1 table spoon

1 1/2 table spoon

2 table spoons

2 table spoons

Oil: palm oil

1 teaspoon

Shortening, solid

1 teaspoon

Sour cream, regular

2 table spoons

One tablespoon = 3 teaspoons of sugar has 60 calories

More links

Print
Comments
Rate this article:
No rating

Join For Free


RECIPES DIRECTORY RECIPES DIRECTORY
RECIPES DIRECTORY EXERCISES DIRECTORY